Indonesia header

Basic Information

Basic Information

Capital: Jakarta

Surface Area: 1,900,000 sq km

Head of State and Government: President HE Joko Widodo

Official Language: Indonesian

Currency: Indonesian Rupiah (IDR)

Population: 249,900,000 (2013)



Gross Domestic Production (GDP)


Indonesia’s GDP in 2013 was US$868.35 billion and GDP per capita was US$3,475. Economic growth has been around 6% for the past few years except in 2009 when it was slightly lower at 4.6% due to lower external demand following the global financial crisis. Indonesia’s economy bounced back quickly due to increasingly strong domestic demand.




Source: The World Bank

GDP components

Household consumption accounted for about 59% of Indonesia’s GDP in 2013, or US$514.5 billion. Government consumption totalled US$79 billion which was 9% of GDP, while investment accounted for 34% or about US$292 billion. Indonesia’s trade balance was negative by US$17.3 billion, or about 2% of Indonesia’s GDP.


Source: The World Bank

GDP Composition

The services sector makes up about 40% of Indonesia’s GDP. Agriculture accounts for 14% of GDP, while manufacturing accounts for 24% and other industries 22%. It is expected that the industry sector will strengthen its share of GDP at the expense of the agriculture and service sectors because manufacturing is currently Indonesia’s most popular sector for foreign direct investment.


Source: The World Bank





Indonesia’s currency is the Indonesian Rupiah (IDR), which is subdivided to 100 cents although due to high inflation all cent coins and notes are obsolete. The rupiah has been relatively stable for the past year albeit at weaker levels compared with the past five years. The average bid rate for the first three quarters of 2014 was 11,881.6 IDR per USD, and the average ask rate was 11,902.4 IDR per USD.

Official Exchange Rate

IDR per USD – 1 year


The Indonesian rupiah started depreciating mid-year 2013 and has remained at weak levels since. The depreciation was mainly due to a lack of confidence in Indonesia’s financial markets after the US Federal Reserve signalled plans to curb stimulus that has been fuelling demand in emerging-markets.

Official Exchange Rate

IDR per USD – 5 year



Foreign Trade





Intra- and extra-ASEAN trade in 2013

Indonesia’s total trade in 2013 reached US$369.18 billion, with US$186.63 billion in imports and US$182.55 billion in exports. Indonesia’s trade balance was therefore negative by US$4.08 billion. Intra-ASEAN imports accounted for 29% of total imports and intra-ASEAN exports accounted for 22.3% of total exports.

imp and exp

Indonesia’s intra- and extra- ASEAN exports and imports, 2013

trade table

Source: ASEAN Secretariat

Trade partners

Japan, China, Singapore and the EU are Indonesia’s largest trading partners. About 14.8% of Indonesia’s exports in 2013 were destined for Japan, 12.4% to China, 9.2% to the EU, and 8.6% to the US. Singapore is Indonesia’s largest trading partner in ASEAN and received 9.1% of Indonesia’s exports in 2013, while 13.2% of Indonesia’s exports went to other ASEAN countries. Singapore is the source for 13.7% of Indonesia’s imports, second to China’s 16%. Japan was the origin of 10.3% of Indonesia’s imports in 2013, followed by the EU (7.4%), Malaysia (7.1%), and other ASEAN countries (8.2%).

Ind expimp

Source: The World Trade Organisation

Commodity groups

Indonesia’s most exported commodity group are fuels and mining products, accounting for about 38.3% of total exports. Indonesia is a large exporter of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the world’s largest exporter of coal. The declining oil production and rising domestic demand has led to increased imports of petroleum, but about 27.5% of Indonesia’s imports in 2013 were fuels and mining products. Manufactured goods accounted for the largest share of imports, or 59.7%, in 2013 and accounted for 37% of exports. Agricultural products accounted for 11.5% of all imports and 23.3% of all exports in 2013.

Ind comm

Source: The World Trade Organisation

Intra- and extra-ASEAN trade 2005-2013

Indonesia’s total trade has decreased slightly in the past two years after the record high level of US$381 billion in 2011. In 2009, following the financial crisis, trade took a serious hit and was only about US$213 billion that year. The share of intra-ASEAN trade of total trade has increased slightly from 23% in the years 2005-2006 to an average of 25% in 2007-2013.

trade 2005-2013

trade 2005-2013 table

Source: ASEANstats

Trade in Services

Indonesia’s trade in services has seen a steady increase over the past few years, except for a setback in 2009 and 2010, following the global financial crisis. In 2012, total trade in services were US$55.83 billion, with US$22.5 billion in exported services and US$33.3 billion in imported services. Indonesia had a negative trade balance in terms of services of US$10.78 billion in 2012.

services trade

Trade in services 2005-2012 (US$ billions)

services table


Source: ASEAN Statistics



Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

Indonesia is one of the world’s leading emerging economies, and the largest economy in Southeast Asia. Indonesia’s large domestic market offers a wide range of investment opportunities. Indonesia attracted foreign direct investment (FDI) of US$18.44 billion in 2013, which was slightly lower than in 2011 and 2012 which saw and FDI of value US$19.24 billion and US$19.14 billion, respectively. Singapore, Japan, South Korea, and United States have been the most active investors in Indonesia, focusing on five regions: Java, Jakarta, Banten, East Java, and East Kalimantan.

The hottest sectors for FDI in Indonesia are the mining sector; transport, storage and telecommunication; metal, machinery and electronic industry; and motor vehicle and other transport equipment industry.


FDI net inflows 2005-2013 (US$ billions)

fdi table

Source: Worldbank

Of the total foreign investment of US$18.44 billion in 2013, almost half, or US$8.72 billion was intra-ASEAN investment. Intra-ASEAN investment had increased by US$1.13 billion from the year before but extra-ASEAN investment had decreased US$1.83 billion, leading to an overall decrease in FDI in 2013 compared with 2012.


FDI net inflow, intra- and extra-ASEAN, 2011-2013 (US$ billions)

fdi table2

Source: ASEAN Secretariat