NTM Trackers 06: Country Series – United States

Extracted August 2020
NTM Tracker Research Led by: Hong Jukhee
Prepared by: Imran Said Shamsunahar | Research Editor: Eleen Ooi Yi Ling
Webmaster: Nor Amirah Mohd Aminuddin

Synopsis
As part of CARI’s ongoing work on NTMs in ASEAN, the NTM Trackers: Country Series tracks the NTMs imposed by all individual ASEAN Member States as well as major ASEAN Dialogue Partners. The data presented goes beyond just aggregate data and breaks down the individual NTMs by partners affected, their codes, dates of when they were imposed, descriptions of the measures, whether the measures are also imposed domestically, descriptions of the products affected, and finally sources. The fifth country in our series is the United States. All data in the series is extracted from UNCTAD TRAINS NTM database as of October 2020. This series will be periodically updated as new data becomes available.

(This article contains eight tables and best viewed on a desktop or horizontally on your mobile.)

1. Introduction


This report is part of a series of NTM trackers tracking Non-Tariff Measures imposed by ASEAN member states and dialogue partners.

The data below on United States was extracted from UNCTAD TRAINS NTM database1 in August 2020. The table captures: the partners affected, the NTM code, the date of which the measure was put into force, a description of the measure, whether the measure is also imposed domestically, a description of the product, and finally its source. It should be noted that the data extracted from the UNCTAD TRAINS NTM database is the best available data at time of publishing. The NTMs are arranged in descending order.

The United States ranks second in ASEAN’s Dialogue Partners by aggregate number of NTMs in 2020

For an overview of Non-Tariff Measures in ASEAN, please refer to CARI’s full report: ASEAN Non-Tariff Measures, Services and Investment Restrictiveness Tracker.

2. About NTM classification


To help better identify and distinguish between the various types of NTMs, NTM measures are divided into chapters depending on their scope and/or design. Within import measures, the classification of data is divided into technical and non-technical classifications. Export-related measures are classified separately (Table 1).

Table 1: Import NTM Classification by UNCTAD

Technical measuresNon-technical measuresExports

  • A. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS)
  • B. Technical barriers to trade (TBT)
  • C. Pre-shipment inspection and other formalities

  • D. Contingent trade-protective measures
  • E. Non-automatic licensing, quotas, prohibitions and quantity-control measures other than for SPS or TBT reasons
  • F. Price control measures including additional taxes and charges
  • G. Finance measures
  • H. Measures affecting competition
  • I. Trade-related investment measures
  • J. Distribution restrictions
  • K. Restrictions on post-sales services
  • L. Subsidies (Excluding export subsidies under P7)
  • M. Governemnt procurement restrictions
  • N. Intellectual property
  • O. Rules of origin

  • P. Export-related measures




Each chapter is further differentiated into several subgroups with a depth of up to three levels. This allows a finer classification of the regulations affecting international trade. For full details on the classification system used for NTMs, please go here: International Classification of Non-Tariff Measures (2019 version)


a) Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures imposed by the United States

Below is the total number of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures imposed by the United States as of August 2020. UNCTAD describes SPS measures as: ‘Measures that are applied to protect human or animal life from risks arising from: additives, contaminants, toxins or disease-causing organisms in food.’

As of August 2020, the United States has imposed a total of 3,224 SPS measures. These measures were imposed between 1959 and 2017.

Table 2


b) Technical Barriers to Trade measures imposed by the United States

Below is the total number of Technical Barriers to Trade measures (TBT) imposed by the United States as of August 2020. UNCTAD describes TBT measures as: ‘measures referring to technical regulations, and procedures for assessment of conformity with technical regulations and standards.’

As of August 2020, the United States has imposed a total of 2,583 TBT measures. These measures were imposed between 1935 to 2018.

Table 3


c) Pre-shipment inspection measures imposed by the United States

Below is the total number of Pre-shipment inspection measures (INSP) imposed by the United States as of August 2020. Among the examples of INSP measures imposed by ASEAN include:

  1. Live animals need to be cleared at a designated customs office for inspection
  2. Requirement that goods must be shipped directly from the country of origin, without stopping at a third country

As of August 2020, the United States has imposed a total of 481 INSP measures. These measures were imposed between 1963 to 2017

Table 4


d) Export-related measures imposed by the United States

Below is the total number of Export-related measures (EXP) imposed by the United States as of August 2020. UNCTAD describes EXP measures as: ‘measures applied by the government of the exporting country on exported goods.’

As of August 2020, the United States has imposed a total of 218 EXP measures. These measures were imposed between 1973 and 2018.

Table 5


e) Quantity Control measures imposed by the United States

Below is the total number of Quantity Control measures (QC) imposed by the United States as of August 2020. UNCTAD describes QC measures as: ‘control measures generally aimed at restraining the quantity of goods that can be imported.’

As of August 2020, the United States has imposed a total of 191 QC measures. These measures were imposed between 1963 to 2018.

Table 6


f) Price control Measures imposed by the United States

Below is the total number of Price control measures (PC) imposed by the United States as of August 2020. UNCTAD describes PC measures as: ‘measures implemented to control or affect the prices of imported goods.

As of August 2020, the United States has imposed a total of 39 PC measures. These measures were imposed between 1955 to 2016.

Table 7


g) Other measures imposed by the United States

Below is the total number of other measures imposed by the United States as of August 2020.

As of August 2020, the United States has imposed 1 Other measure. This measure was imposed in 1973.

Table 8


Footnotes

1 The data has been collected by UNCTAD. Accuracy of data to be verified against relevant data. For methodology, please refer to UNCTAD.