NTM Trackers 12: Country Series – Myanmar

Extracted November 2020
NTM Tracker Research Led by: Hong Jukhee
Prepared by: Imran Said Shamsunahar | Research Editor: Eleen Ooi Yi Ling
Webmaster: Nor Amirah Mohd Aminuddin

Synopsis
As part of CARI’s ongoing work on NTMs in ASEAN, the NTM Trackers: Country Series tracks the NTMs imposed by all individual ASEAN Member States as well as major ASEAN Dialogue Partners. The data presented goes beyond just aggregate data and breaks down the individual NTMs by partners affected, their codes, dates of when they were imposed, descriptions of the measures, whether the measures are also imposed domestically, descriptions of the products affected, and finally sources. The eleventh country in our series is Myanmar. All data in the series is extracted from UNCTAD TRAINS NTM database as of November 2020. This series will be periodically updated as new data becomes available.

(This article contains seven tables and best viewed on a desktop or horizontally on your mobile.)

1. Introduction


This report is part of a series of NTM trackers tracking Non-Tariff Measures imposed by ASEAN member states and dialogue partners.

The data below on Myanmar was extracted from UNCTAD TRAINS NTM database1 in November 2020. The table captures: the partners affected, the NTM code, the date of which the measure was put into force, a description of the measure, whether the measure is also imposed domestically, a description of the product, and finally its source. It should be noted that the data extracted from the UNCTAD TRAINS NTM database is the best available data at time of publishing. The NTMs are arranged in descending order.

Myanmar ranks tenth in ASEAN by aggregate number of NTMs in 2020

For an overview of Non-Tariff Measures in ASEAN, please refer to CARI’s full report: ASEAN Non-Tariff Measures, Services and Investment Restrictiveness Tracker.

2. About NTM classification


To help better identify and distinguish between the various types of NTMs, NTM measures are divided into chapters depending on their scope and/or design. Within import measures, the classification of data is divided into technical and non-technical classifications. Export-related measures are classified separately (Table 1).

Table 1: Import NTM Classification by UNCTAD

Technical measuresNon-technical measuresExports

  • A. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS)
  • B. Technical barriers to trade (TBT)
  • C. Pre-shipment inspection and other formalities

  • D. Contingent trade-protective measures
  • E. Non-automatic licensing, quotas, prohibitions and quantity-control measures other than for SPS or TBT reasons
  • F. Price control measures including additional taxes and charges
  • G. Finance measures
  • H. Measures affecting competition
  • I. Trade-related investment measures
  • J. Distribution restrictions
  • K. Restrictions on post-sales services
  • L. Subsidies (Excluding export subsidies under P7)
  • M. Governemnt procurement restrictions
  • N. Intellectual property
  • O. Rules of origin

  • P. Export-related measures




Each chapter is further differentiated into several subgroups with a depth of up to three levels. This allows a finer classification of the regulations affecting international trade. For full details on the classification system used for NTMs, please go here: International Classification of Non-Tariff Measures (2019 version)


a) Sanitary and phytosanitary measures imposed by Myanmar

Below is the total number of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures imposed by Myanmar as of November 2020. UNCTAD describes SPS measures as: ‘Measures that are applied to protect human or animal life from risks arising from: additives, contaminants, toxins or disease-causing organisms in food.’

As of November 2020, Myanmar has imposed a total of 80 SPS measures. These measures were imposed between 1989 to 2016.

Table 2


b) Export related measures imposed by Myanmar

Below is the total number of Export-related measures (EXP) imposed by Myanmar as of November 2020. UNCTAD describes EXP measures as: ‘Export-relatemeasures applied by the government of the exporting country on exported goods.’

As of November 2020, Myanmar has imposed a total of 64 EXP measures. These measures were imposed between 1989 to 2018.

Table 3


c) Technical barriers to trade measures imposed by Myanmar

Below is the total number of Technical Barriers to Trade measures (TBT) imposed by Myanmar as of November 2020. UNCTAD describes TBT measures as: ‘measures referring to technical regulations, and procedures for assessment of conformity with technical regulations and standards.’

As of November 2020, Myanmar has imposed a total of 51 TBT measures. These measures were imposed between 1993 to 2018.

Table 4


d) Quantity control measures imposed by Myanmar

Below is the total number of Quantity Control measures (QC) imposed by Myanmar as of November 2020. UNCTAD describes QC measures as: ‘control measures generally aimed at restraining the quantity of goods that can be imported.’

As of November 2020, Myanmar has imposed a total of 36 QC measures. These measures were imposed between 1993 to 2018.

Table 5


e) Price control measures imposed by Myanmar

Below is the total number of Price control measures (PC) imposed by Myanmar as of November 2020. UNCTAD describes PC measures as: ‘measures implemented to control or affect the prices of imported goods.

As of November 2020, Myanmar has imposed a total of 20 PC measures. These measures were imposed between 1990 to 2018.

Table 6


f) Other measures imposed by Myanmar

Below is the total number of Other measures (INSP) imposed by Myanmar as of November 2020.

As of November 2020, Myanmar has imposed 10 Other measures. These measures were imposed between 1992 to 2018.

Table 7


g) Pre-shipment inspection measures imposed by Myanmar

Below is the total number of pre-shipment inspection measures (INSP) imposed by Myanmar as of November 2020.

As of November 2020, Myanmar has imposed 6 INSP measures. These measures were imposed between 1993 to 2018.

Table 7


Footnotes

1 The data has been collected by UNCTAD. Accuracy of data to be verified against relevant data. For methodology, please refer to UNCTAD.